Acronyms and abbreviations used on i+academy

This is a glossary of all acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the site.

Browse the glossary using this index

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ICRS is an acronym for International Chemical Reference Substances, substances used by laboratories to test pharmaceuticals for the purpose of quality control. Used for validating results from specific tests.


IRP is the acronym for International Reference Prices, compiled using publicly available data on medicines prices from various sources. The most well-known IRP is the Management Sciences for Health (MSH) International Drug Price Indicator. It is widely recognized and regularly updated, and features the median price of a large number of medicines compiled from manufacturers, wholesalers, international organizations, and government. More information on their webpage.



LCB is an acronym for Limited International Competitive Bidding, a procurement method.



M&E is the acronym for monitoring and evaluation.


MRL is the acronym for Minimum Reorder Level, the minimum stock quantity that should be available at all times and indicates when a request for additional stock must be placed. It may be determined at 3-6 months, depending on the AMU and type of product.



NCB is an acronym for National Competitive Bidding, a procurement method.


NDRA is the acronym for national drug regulatory authority. Also known as national regulatory authority (NRA) or national medicines regulatory authority (NMRA). 


NMP is the acronym for National Medicines Policy. National medicines policy is the combined effort of a country (through policies, guidelines, strategies or plans) to ensure the availability, affordability and rational use of medicines that are safe, effective and of good quality. It usually contains provisions on the regulatory body (national regulatory authority) that develops and implements legislation and regulation to ensure the safety, efficacy and quality of medicines.


NRA is the acronym for national regulatory authority.



OBA is the acronym of output-based aid: subset of RBF or PBF that uses donor aid as a financial reward to governments, or sometimes nongovernmental organizations, to achieve outputs or outcomes.

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