Supply Chain Management main glossary
This is a glossary of key terms used throughout the site.
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
The degree to which a project or an organisation operates according to specific criteria, standards or guidelines, or achieves results in accordance with stated goals or plans.
Performance-based financing is a system of donor funding by which cash or non-monetary benefits are provided against measurable actions or achievement. Pay-for-performance, results-based financing, performance-based contracting, performance-based agreement, performance-based incentives and performance-based granting are slightly different concepts but basically refer to the same conditional funding mechanism.
Pharmacopoeia refers to a set of quality specifications for pharmaceutical substances (active ingredients and excipients) and dosage forms. It also includes general methods of analysis.
Pooled procurement, as defined by WHO, is when purchasing is done by one procurement office on behalf of a group of facilities, health systems or countries. Members of the group agree to purchase certain medicines exclusively through the group.
Postmarketing surveillance or post market surveillance refers to the operation by which the safety of a medicine or medical product is monitored after it has been released on the market. Post market surveillance is an important part of pharmacovigilance, and widens the control study of the safety of a medicine from a limited number of clinical trial participants to the general population.
A problem statement is a statement in a monitoring and evaluation plan (M&E) that describes the nature and extent of the problem to be addressed by an intervention. It clearly states the specific problem and includes a quantitative element that describes the magnitude of the problem and its impact on society.
A type of evaluation that focuses on program implementation. Process evaluations usually focus on a single program and use largely qualitative methods to describe program activities and perceptions, especially during the developmental stages and early implementation of the program. These assessments may also include some quantitative approaches, such as surveys about client satisfaction and perceptions about needs and services. In addition, a process evaluation might provide understanding about a program’s cultural, socio-political, legal, and economic contexts that affect the program. Synonyms: formative evaluation, mid-term evaluation.
The multiple activities, both planning and implementation, carried out to achieve the program’s objectives.
Public health expenditure
According to WHO, public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation.