Supply Chain Management main glossary

This is a glossary of key terms used throughout the site.

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Objectives are significant propositions that contribute to the achievement of goals and provide a structure for more detailed planning of a specific program. Several objectives can contribute to a goal. Examples: “to reduce the total fertility rate to 4.0 births by Year X” or “to increase contraceptive prevalence over the life of the program.”

Entry link: Objectives


Outcomes are the changes measured at the population level in the program’s target population, some or all of which may be the result of a given program or intervention. Outcomes refer to specific knowledge, behaviours, or practices on the part of the intended audience that are clearly related to the program, can reasonably be expected to change over the short-to-intermediate term, and that contribute to a program’s desired long-term goals. Examples would be “the percentage of clients in a stop smoking program who are nonsmokers six months after the program ends” or “the percentage of married women, 15-44, using contraception one year after a family planning intervention.”

Entry link: Outcomes

Output-based aid

Output-based aid: subset of RBF or PBF that uses donor aid as a financial reward to governments, or sometimes nongovernmental organizations, to achieve outputs or outcomes.

Entry link: Output-based aid


The results of activities achieved at the program level, in two forms: the number of activities performed (e.g., number of service providers trained) and measures of service utilisation (e.g., number of contraceptives distributed).

Entry link: Outputs


Overstock is a situation in which an item is stocked in excessive quantities (above the maximum stock level). Overstock is a nefarious situation in the supply chain cycle of medicines, as it is a waste of the often limited financial resources available.

Entry link: Overstock