Supply Chain Management main glossary

This is a glossary of key terms used throughout the site.

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OBA is the acronym of output-based aid: subset of RBF or PBF that uses donor aid as a financial reward to governments, or sometimes nongovernmental organizations, to achieve outputs or outcomes.



Objectives are significant propositions that contribute to the achievement of goals. They also provide a structure for more detailed planning of a specific program. Several objectives can contribute to a goal. Examples of objectives are: “reduce the total fertility rate to 4.0 births by year x” or “increase contraceptive prevalence over the duration of the program.”


Organisation Mondiale de la Santé




Outcomes are the changes measured as the result of a given program or intervention. Outcomes refer to knowledge, behaviour or practices on the part of the target population that are clearly related to the program. These can reasonably be expected to change over the short-to-intermediate term, and contribute to a program’s desired long-term goals. Examples are “the percentage of participants in a stop-smoking program that are still non-smokers six months after the program end” or “the percentage of married women, 15-44, that use contraception one year after a family planning intervention.”


Outputs are the immediate results of activities achieved by an activity or program. They usually follow from the specific objectives of a program. When they are clearly quantified, and when their baseline and target values are set, they are the main source for monitoring.


Overstock is the situation where products are stocked in excessive quantities (above the maximum stock level). Overstock is a nefarious situation in the supply chain cycle, as it leads to a waste of the often limited financial resources available.