Supply Chain Management main glossary
This is a glossary of key terms used throughout the site.
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Postmarketing surveillance or post market surveillance refers to the operation by which the safety of a medicine or medical product is monitored after it has been released on the market. Post market surveillance is an important part of pharmacovigilance, and widens the control study of the safety of a medicine from a limited number of clinical trial participants to the general population.
A problem statement is a statement in a monitoring and evaluation plan (M&E) that describes the nature and extent of the problem to be addressed by an intervention. It clearly states the specific problem and includes a quantitative element that describes the magnitude of the problem and its impact on society.
A type of evaluation that focuses on program implementation. Process evaluations usually focus on a single program and use largely qualitative methods to describe program activities and perceptions, especially during the developmental stages and early implementation of the program. These assessments may also include some quantitative approaches, such as surveys about client satisfaction and perceptions about needs and services. In addition, a process evaluation might provide understanding about a program’s cultural, socio-political, legal, and economic contexts that affect the program. Synonyms: formative evaluation, mid-term evaluation.
The multiple activities, both planning and implementation, carried out to achieve the program’s objectives.
Public health expenditure
According to WHO, public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation.
Quality assurance is a wide-ranging concept covering all matters that individually or collectively influence the quality of a pharmaceutical product, thus ensuring that medicines reaching the patient are safe, effective and of defined quality.
Quality control, according to the WHO, refers to the sum of all procedures undertaken to ensure the identity and purity of a particular pharmaceutical product. Such procedures may range from the performance of simple experiments to determine the identity, to more complicated requirements of pharmacopoeial monographs.
Results that are accurate and consistent through repeated measurement.
Frameworks that explain how a project’s strategic objective (SO) is to be achieved, including those results that are necessary and sufficient, as well as their causal relationships and underlying assumptions. It is usually depicted with the main program goal at the top, each of the main objectives in its own box under the goal, and the results feeding into each objective from the bottom to the top.