Supply Chain Management main glossary


This is a glossary of key terms used throughout the site.

Browse the glossary using this index

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N

Nonroutine data sources

Resources that provide data collected on a periodic basis, usually annually or less frequently. In addition to large-scale household surveys, they may include small-scale, ad-hoc household surveys, special studies and national censuses.

Entry link: Nonroutine data sources

O

Objectives

Objectives are significant propositions that contribute to the achievement of goals and provide a structure for more detailed planning of a specific program. Several objectives can contribute to a goal. Examples: “to reduce the total fertility rate to 4.0 births by Year X” or “to increase contraceptive prevalence over the life of the program.”

Entry link: Objectives

Outcomes

Outcomes are the changes measured at the population level in the program’s target population, some or all of which may be the result of a given program or intervention. Outcomes refer to specific knowledge, behaviours, or practices on the part of the intended audience that are clearly related to the program, can reasonably be expected to change over the short-to-intermediate term, and that contribute to a program’s desired long-term goals. Examples would be “the percentage of clients in a stop smoking program who are nonsmokers six months after the program ends” or “the percentage of married women, 15-44, using contraception one year after a family planning intervention.”

Entry link: Outcomes

Output-based aid

Output-based aid: subset of RBF or PBF that uses donor aid as a financial reward to governments, or sometimes nongovernmental organizations, to achieve outputs or outcomes.

Entry link: Output-based aid

Outputs

The results of activities achieved at the program level, in two forms: the number of activities performed (e.g., number of service providers trained) and measures of service utilisation (e.g., number of contraceptives distributed).

Entry link: Outputs

Overstock

Overstock is a situation in which an item is stocked in excessive quantities (above the maximum stock level). Overstock is a nefarious situation in the supply chain cycle of medicines, as it is a waste of the often limited financial resources available.

Entry link: Overstock

P

Performance

The degree to which a project or an organisation operates according to specific criteria, standards or guidelines, or achieves results in accordance with stated goals or plans.

Entry link: Performance

Performance guarantee

Once a purchase order or contract has been awarded, the successful bidder/supplier may be asked to provide financial guarantee in the form of performance guarantee (as % of the total contract value). The following forms of guarantee may be accepted:

  • Letter of credit.
  • Cash deposit.
  • Certified cheque.
  • Unconditional guarantee/bond issued by a financial institution.

The performance guarantee is used for guaranteeing the performance of contract by the supplier in accordance with the requirements of the contract. It should be deposited within a specified time after notification of award. Release of the sum may be made in whole or in parts, conditional upon progress of contract performance, inspection and acceptance etc. The procedure is prescribed by the entity in the tender documentation, upon considering the characteristics and actual needs of the procurement. Performance guarantee may be forfeited in cases of unsatisfactory performance or violation of contract terms.

Entry link: Performance guarantee

Performance-based financing

Performance-based financing is a system of donor funding by which cash or non-monetary benefits are provided against measurable actions or achievement. Pay-for-performance, results-based financing, performance-based contracting, performance-based agreement, performance-based incentives and performance-based granting are slightly different concepts but basically refer to the same conditional funding mechanism.

Entry link: Performance-based financing

Pharmacopoeia

Pharmacopoeia refers to a set of quality specifications for pharmaceutical substances (active ingredients and excipients) and dosage forms. It also includes general methods of analysis.

Entry link: Pharmacopoeia


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